Contents

  1. Chapter 1 - Mendel’s First Law and Meiosis

    1. 1.1 Introduction

      1. Gregor Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance
    2. 1.2 Dominant and Recessive Alleles

      1. What is the Phenotype of a Heterozygote?
    3. 1.3 Meiosis

      1. Stages of Meiosis
      2. Meiosis I and Meiosis II
      3. Gamete Maturation
    4. 1.4 One Locus on a Chromosome - Segregation - Monohybrid

      1. Terminology
    5. 1.5 Punnett Squares - 3:1 Ratio

    6. 1.6 Single Locus Test Crosses

    7. Chapter 1 Summary

    8. Key Terms in Chapter 1

    9. Chapter 1 Study Questions

    10. Chapter 1 Answers

  2. Chapter 2 - Mendel’s Second Law: Independent Assortment

    1. 2.1 Introduction

    2. 2.2 Two Loci on Different Chromosomes

    3. 2.3 Two Loci on One Chromosome

    4. 2.4 A Dihybrid Cross Showing Mendel's Second Law (Independent Assortment)

      1. Mendel’s Second Law
      2. Assumptions of the 9:3:3:1 Ratio
      3. Deviations from the 9:3:3:1 Phenotypic Ratio
    5. 2.5 The Dihybrid Test Cross

    6. 2.6 Predicting Ratios in Genetic Crosses - Rules of Probability

    7. Chapter 2 Summary

    8. Key Terms in Chapter 2

    9. Chapter 2 Study Questions

    10. Chapter 2 Answers

  3. Chapter 3 - The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

    1. 3.1 Introduction

    2. 3.2 The Typical Cell Cycle

    3. 3.3 Mitosis

      1.  How Mitosis Helps to Maintain Genetic Stability
    4. 3.4 Amount of DNA (c-value) and Number of Chromosomes (n-value)

      1. The c-Value of the Nuclear Genome
      2. The c-Value Paradox
      3. The Number of Chromosomes (n-Value)
    5. 3.5 Appearance of a Typical Nuclear Chromosome During the Cell Cycle

    6. 3.6 Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis

    7. Chapter 3 Summary

    8. Key Terms in Chapter 3

    9. Chapter 3 Study Questions

    10. Chapter 3 Answers

  4. Chapter 4 - Pedigree Analysis

    1. 4.1 Introduction

    2. 4.2 Symbols used in Pedigree Charts

    3. 4.3 Modes of Inheritance

      1. Autosomal Dominant (AD)
      2. X-Linked Dominant (XD)
      3. Autosomal Recessive (AR)
      4. X-Linked Recessive (XR)
      5. Y-Linked
    4. 4.4 Sporadic and Non-Heritable Diseases

    5. 4.5 Calculating Probabilities Using Pedigree Charts

    6. Chapter 4 Summary

    7. Key Terms in Chapter 4

    8. Chapter 4 Study Questions

    9. Chapter 4 Answers

  5. Chapter 5 - The Complementation Test

    1. 5.1 Introduction

    2. 5.2 Complementation Tests and Allelism

    3. 5.3 Complementation Groups = Groups of Allelic Mutations

      1. Example 1: Multiple Mutant Complementation Test
      2. Example 2: Double Hit Strain
    4. 5.4 Transformation Rescue

    5. Chapter 5 Summary

    6. Key Terms in Chapter 5

    7. Chapter 5 Study Questions

    8. Chapter 5 Answers

  6. Chapter 6 - Alleles at a Single Locus

    1. 6.1 Introduction

    2. 6.2 Somatic vs. Germline Mutations

      1. Somatic Mutations
      2. Germline Mutations
      3. Haploid vs. Diploid Organisms
    3. 6.3 Alleles: Hetero-, Homo-, Hemizygosity

    4. 6.4 Pleiotropy vs. Polygenic Inheritance

    5. 6.5 Types of Dominance

      1. Complete Dominance
      2. Incomplete Dominance
      3. Co-Dominance
    6. 6.6 Biochemical Basis of Dominance

    7. 6.7 Classification of Mutants

      1. Morphological Mutants
      2. Lethal Mutants
      3. Biochemical Mutants
      4. Conditional Mutants
    8. 6.8 Muller's Morphs

      1. Amorph
      2. Hypomorph
      3. Hypermorph
      4. Neomorph
      5. Antimorph
      6. Identifying Muller’s Morphs
    9. Chapter 6 Summary

    10. Key Terms in Chapter 6

    11. Chapter 6 Study Questions

    12. Chapter 6 Answers

  7. Chapter 7 - The Central Dogma - Mutations and Biochemical Pathways

    1. 7.1 Introduction

    2. 7.2 The Beadle and Tatum Experiments

    3. 7.3 The "One Gene: One Enzyme" Hypothesis

    4. 7.4 Genetic Screening and Biochemical Pathways

      1. Genetic Screens
    5. 7.5 Mutations Without Detectable Phenotypes

      1. Silent Changes
      2. Environment and Genetic Redundancy
      3. Essential Genes and Lethal Alleles
      4. Naming Genes
    6. 7.6 Cystic Fibrosis in Humans

      1. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) — Autosomal Recessive
    7. Chapter 7 Summary

    8. Key Terms in Chapter 7

    9. Chapter 7 Study Questions

    10. Chapter 7 Answers

  8. Chapter 8 - Gene Interactions

    1. 8.1 Introduction

    2. 8.2 Recall - Mendelian Dihybrid Crosses

      1. Mendel’s Second Law (A Quick Review)
    3. 8.3 Epistasis and Other Gene Interactions

      1. Recessive Epistasis
      2. Dominant Epistasis
      3. Duplicate Gene Action
      4. Complementary Gene Action
      5. Genetic Suppression and Enhancement
      6.  Summary of Modifications
    4. 8.4 Polygenic Inheritance

      1. Continuous Variation
    5. 8.5 Environmental Factors

      1. Penetrance
      2. Expressivity
    6. 8.6 Factors Causing Deviation from Mendelian Phenotypic Ratios

    7. Chapter 8 Summary

    8. Key Terms in Chapter 8

    9. Chapter 8 Study Questions

    10. Chapter 8 Answers

  9. Chapter 9 - Linkage and Recombination Frequency

    1. 9.1 Introduction

    2. 9.2 Review of Genetic Nomenclature and Symbols

      1. Gene Names and Symbols
    3. 9.3 Recombination and Recombination Frequency

      1. Inter- and Intrachromosomal Recombination
      2. Inheriting Parental and Recombinant Gametes
      3. Recombination Frequency
    4. 9.4 Coupling and Repulsion (cis and trans) Configuration

    5. 9.5 Unlinked Genes vs. Partial Linkage vs. Complete Linkage

      1. Unlinked Genes
      2. Complete Linkage
      3. Partial Linkage
    6. 9.6 Experimental Determination of Recombination Frequency

    7. Chapter 9 Summary

    8. Key Terms in Chapter 9

    9. Chapter 9 Study Questions

    10. Chapter 9 Answers

  10. Chapter 10 - Sex Chromosomes & Sex Linkage

    1. 10.1 Introduction

    2. 10.2 Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes

    3. 10.3 Pseudo-Autosomal Regions on the X and Y Chromosomes

    4. 10.4 Sex Linkage: An Exception to Mendel's First Law

      1. X-Linked Genes: The White Gene in Drosophila Melanogaster
    5. 10.5 Y-Linked Genes

    6. Chapter 10 Summary

    7. Key Terms in Chapter 10

    8. Chapter 10 Study Questions

    9. Chapter 10 Answers

  11. Chapter 11 - Recombination Mapping of Gene Loci

    1. 11.1 Introduction

    2. 11.2 Genetic Mapping

      1. Calculating Map Distance
      2. Map Distance Over Long Chromosomes
      3. Genetic Maps are an Approximation
    3. 11.3 Two-Point and Three-Point Crosses

      1. Two-Point Crosses
      2. Three-Point Crosses
    4. 11.4 Coincidence and Interference

    5. Chapter 11 Summary

    6. Key Terms in Chapter 11

    7. Chapter 11 Study Questions

    8. Chapter 11 Answers

  12. Chapter 12 - Physical Mapping of Chromosomes and Genomes

    1. 12.1 Introduction

    2. 12.2 Genetic Maps

      1. Examples of Genes in Humans
    3. 12.3 Cytogenetic Maps

    4. 12.4 Physical Maps

      1. Human Genome Project (HGP)
      2. Restriction Mapping Procedure
    5. Chapter 12 Summary

    6. Key Terms in Chapter 12

    7. Chapter 12 Study Questions

    8. Chapter 12 Answers

  13. Chapter 13 - Genes and COVID-19 Susceptibility in Humans

    1. 13.1 Introduction

    2. 13.2 How Does SARS-Cov-2 Infect Humans?

    3. 13.3 Genes Implicated in Severe COVID-19 Infection in Humans

      1. Overview
      2. A Closer Look at Popular Theories
    4. 13.4 Approaches for Vaccine Development Against SARS‐Cov‐2

    5. Chapter 13 Summary

    6. Key Terms in Chapter 13

  14. Appendix